A metal contact system for an IGFET having shallow source and drain includes a refractory metal silicide layer forming low resistance ohmic contact to a silicon surface, a layer on the silicide layer of another refractory metal to serve as a barrier against diffusion of the interconnect metal, and a layer of interconnect metal over the diffusion barrier layer.

Abstract >Ductile-brittle transition behavior occurs in the bodycentered cubic refractory metals niobium, molybdenum. tungsten, and chromium. The available data for vanadium suggest that brittleness at low temperatures is attributable a low-stress-rate hydogen embrittlement.

Abstract Impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen or carbon in either the refractory metal or the alkali metal can have a significant effect on compatibility in refractory metal-alkali metal systems. In...

Abstract. All refractory metals, except osmium and iridium, have the highest melting temperatures and lowest vapor pressures of all metals. This Article discusses the commercial applications, and production procedures of refractory metals and alloys. These procedures include fabrication, machining, forming, cleaning, joining, and coatings.

1. Introduction. The oxidation behavior of refractory metals has been the subject of numerous past studies and reviews,,,,,,,,,, .In air at pressures near 2100 Pa (1 atm), scale formation occurs resulting in negligible oxidation rates below 200°C and slow parabolic rates at 300–400°C.

Dec 10, 2018· The term 'refractory metal' is used to describe a group of metal elements with high melting points and are resistant to wear, corrosion, and deformation. The Balance ... Learn About Refractory Metals Get the Definition and Find out Which Elements the Term Refers To . Share Pin

Abstract. Refractory metals are extracted from ore concentrates or scrap, processed into intermediate chemicals, and then reduced to metal, usually in powder form. This article discusses the raw materials needed and the processing steps for producing pure and alloyed refractory metal powders. The effects of processing conditions on the physical ...

Moreover, based on these two electronic descriptors, a linear regression model is proposed to describe the solute–defect interaction energies in binary alloys of bcc refractory metals with ...

Abstract: The '1970 Aerospace Structural Metals Handbook', up-dated with the insertion of Supplement 2, now contains physical, chemical, and mechanical property information on 187 metals and alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications. Volume 2 contains 61 chapters of heat resistant alloys.

Abstract. Tantalum is a versatile refractory metal used in many applications, such as superalloys, high temperatures, ballistics, capacitors, electronics, chemical processing, and medical applications. These applications, along with tantalum's properties and fabrication techniques, will be reviewed.

Oxidation studies of some refractory metals Abstract Samples of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten metals have been given phosphided cases by heating in a phosphorous atmosphere. The samples were subsequently exposed to air at an elevated temperature. In tests at 800°C, the phosphided samples resisted air oxidation markedly compared to ...

Abstract. Solid-state diffusion bonding of refractory metals by heating in vacuum was developed for self-bonding Cb to Cb, Mo to Mo, and bi-metal bonding Mo to Ta, etc. Other metals and alloys such as W, Re, Mo, Ta, Cb, V, W--26 Re, Mo-- 50 Re, and Ta-- 10 W have also been diffusion bonded.

Abstract: The refractory metals include niobium (also known as columbium), tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. With the exception of two of the platinum-group metals, osmium and iridium, they have the highest melting temperatures and lowest vapor pressures of all metals.

Abstract. Refractory metals are normally considered to include the relatively small number of metals which are capable of use at very high temperature [1]. There are four refractory metals with commercial applications — molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum and niobium [2].

14. ABSTRACT The process for attaching a refractory metal liner to a gun tube, known as Gun Liner Emplacement with an Elastomeric Material (GLEEM) has been developed for the 25 mm Bushmaster medium caliber cannon. Stellite 25 liners were emplaced in three barrels. The liners in the first and third barrel were rifled, which enabled them to be fired.

A refractory metal silicide coating is electrodeposited onto an object, using a bath containing an alkali fluoride melt, a silicon fluoride dissolved in the melt, a refractory metal-containing compound also dissolved in the melt. An anode composed of the refractory metal is immersed in the bath. The article to be coated is immersed in the bath as the cathode, a platinum electrode is immersed ...

Abstract. Hafnium (Hf) is a refractory metal with a high melting point. Hf is exploited to produce the elements of reactor control and shielding systems and containers for storing radioactive materials for its good neutron-physical, mechanical, and corrosion properties.

Nov 12, 2016· Abstract. Refractory metal alloys based on Nb, Mo, Ta, W, and Re find applications in the aerospace industries because of their high melting points and high temperature strengths. They are generally produced by powder metallurgy technique due to their very high melting points.

Various mechanisms of strengthening refractory metals and alloys are discussed. ... [Show full abstract] ... The principles of the Varestraint test were applied to the evaluation of refractory ...

Abstract. Refractory metals are highly resistant to dissolutive corrosion attack by liquid and boiling alkali metals when the alkali metals and refractory metals are free of impurities. Dissolution increases drastically, however, when the alkali metals contain oxygen. This phenomenon has been attributed to the formation of ternary oxides ...

Second, it seems appropriate to consider the refractory metals as those which have higher melting points than do titanium (melting point 1660°C) and zirconium (1850°C), which are used chiefly at intermediate temperatures. Therefore chromium (melting point 1875°C) is usually classed as a refractory metal.

Abstract– Alloys of the refractory metals Re, Os, W, Ir, Ru, Mo, Pt, and Rh with small amounts of Fe and Ni are predicted to be one of the very first high‐temperature condensates in a cooling gas of solar composition. Recently, such alloy grains were found in acid‐resistant residues of …

Abstract This article describes various procedures used in the metallographic preparation of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys. It provides information on sectioning, grinding, mounting, polishing, and electrolytic etching as well as alternate procedures that have been used on refractory metals.

PDF | About the book Refractory metals are commonly made for improved thermal stability, corrosion resistance, and mechanical strength. ... abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or ...

The work discussed concerns the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten and alloys based on these elements. Recent results on intermetallic compounds that contain a refractory metal and composites that are made of refractory metals and their intermetallics are also presented.

Before You Begin The entire submission and review process for the International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials proceeds entirely online using the Elsevier Editorial System, which shortens publication times.. Prior to submitting your paper, please follow the instructions on manuscript preparation given below. Please note that you must have an e-mail address to use the online ...

Abstract. The alloys of niobium and tantalum are attractive from a strength and compatibility viewpoint for high operating temperatures required in materials for fuel cladding, liquid metal transfer, and heat pipe applications in space power systems that will supply from 100 …

Abstract. Refractory metals as a class of materials are understood to share the common properties of very high melting temperature and mechanical properties and wear resistance. A narrowly defined class of refractory metals would include metals with melting points > 2000°C: niobium, chromium, ...

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